Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health in Nigeria: An Appraisal of the Situation

Authors

  • Dr. Iribhogbe Oseihie Ignis
  • MC Ezeanochie

Keywords:

Adolescent, Reproductive Health, Sexual Health

Abstract

Background: Nigeria has over 30 million persons aged between 10-19 years and almost one third of Nigeria's total population is between the ages of 10-24 years. The Nigerian government has ratified several regional and international instruments and conventions to promote ASRH. In spite of these policies and strategies, adolescent sexual and reproductive health challenges remain a critical issue in Nigeria.

Methods: A literature review of relevant published articles and policy documents on ASRH in Nigeria from 1996 to 2016 using both manual and electronic search of relevant databases.

Results: Early sexual debut, occurring in 18% of males and 22% of female Nigerian adolescents, is more prevalent among adolescents in Southern Nigeria (24.3% males and 28.7% females) compared to those in the North (12.1% of males and 13.1% females). Transactional sex is frequently reported among adolescents. Adolescents and young persons in Nigeria are susceptible to sexual coercion and violence. Forced marriage of female adolescent is prevalent in Nigeria; nearly one quarter (23%) of adolescent girls aged 15 19 years are already mothers or pregnant with their first child. Only 6.1% of all individuals aged 15 19 years are using any form of contraception. Nigerian adolescent girls make up over 30% of women treated for complications from unsafe abortion. Maternal mortality resulting from complications of pregnancy and delivery among adolescents accounted for about 15% of all maternal deaths.

Conclusion: Despite constituting a substantial number of the Nigerian population, key ASRH indicators among Nigerian adolescents remain poor. This is despite the existence of enabling legislation for enforcement and Federal Government Policy documents. There is a need to develop the political will at all level of Governance and to adapt local contextual realities in implementing interventions to promote ASRH

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Dr. Iribhogbe Oseihie Ignis

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Benin/University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State.

MC Ezeanochie

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Benin/University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State.

References

World Health Organization. Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health. Adolescent Health. WHO website: http://www.who .int/maternal_ child_adolescent/topics/adolescence/dev/en/.[Cited September,2016.]

UNFPA.AdolescentRealitiesinaChangingworld. Http://www.unfpa.org/adolescents/about.htm [cited September 2016]

UNFPA. Adolescent and youth demographics: a brief overview. https://www.unfpa.org/.../- default/...pdf/One%20pager%20on%20youth% 20demograp [Cited 24/9/2016]

UNICEF. State of the World's Children 2011, Adolescence, an Age of Opportunity. Realizing the rights of Adolescents. United Nations Children's Fund 3 United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017, USA ,2011;2:20-22. www.un icef.org/adolescence/files/SOWC_2011_Main_ Report_EN_02092-011.pdf

Guttmacher Institute. Facts on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescent Women in the Developing World. Https://www.guttma cher.org/pubs/FB-Adolescents-SRH.pdf.

Federal Ministry of Health, Action Health Incorporated. Assessment report of the national response to young people's sexual and reproductive health in Nigeria. Division of Gender, Adolescent/School Health & Care of the Elderly GASHE), Federal Ministry of Health and Action Health Incorporated, 17 Lawal Street, off Oweh Street, Jibowu, Lagos. 2009.Http://www. action-healthinc.org/ publications/docs /Assessment%20Report%20of%20National%20 Response%20To%20Young%20People's%20Sex ual%20and%20Reproductive%20Health%20in% 20Nigeria.pdf

Lloyd CB (ed). Growing up global: the changing transitions to adulthood in developing countries. Washington DC: The National Academy Press. 2005.

Okonofua F.E, Olagbuji B. Youth Sexuality, Reproductive Health and Rights. In: Okonofua F.E (ed). Confronting the challenge of Reproductive Health in Africa. A textbook for students and development practitioners, Women's Health and Action Resource centre. Brown Walker Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 2014;6:91-123.

Jessica L Morris, Hamid Rushwan. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health: The global challenges. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2015;131(1): S40 -S42.

United Nations. International Youth Year: Participation, Development, Peace. A/RES/40 /14, 80th plenary meeting, 18 November 1985. Http://www.un.org/doc uments/ga/res /40/ a40r014.htm

United Nations. United Nations Convention on

the Rights of the Child, New York, 20 November 1989. Https://treaties.un.org/doc /publication /mtdsg/volume%20i/chapter%20iv/iv- 11.en.pdf

UNFPA. Program of action, International conference on population and Development (ICPD), Cairo, September 1994. Https: //ww w.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/event-pdf /PoA_en.pdf

Federal Ministry of Health. National policy on the Health and development of adolescents and young people in Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria,2007. Www.health. Gov.ng/doc/policy.pdf

National Strategic Framework on the Health & Development of Adolescents & Young People in Nigeria, 2007-2011, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja Nigeria. www.health.Gov.ng/doc/ StrategicFramework.pdf

National Bureau of Statistics. Nigerian Gross Domestic Product Report Quarter One 2016, National Bureau of Statistics, Central Business District, FCT, Abuja, Nigeria. Http://niger ianstat.gov.ng/report/398.

Joseph Olukayode Akinbi. Examining the Boko haram insurgency in Northern Nigeria and the quest for a permanent resolution of the crisis. Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences,2015;3(8):32-45.

Adesegun O Fatusi and Robert W Blum. Predictors of early sexual initiation among a nationally representative sample of Nigerian adolescents. BMC Public Health. 2008; 8: 136.

John Abdulrahman Imaledo, Opirite Boma Peter- Kio, Eme Olukemi Asuquo. Patten of risky sexual behavior and associated among undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2012; 12:97.

Kunnuji, Michael. Atypical adolescent sexual behaviour: A study of involvement in triolism and same gender sex in Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2012;4(1):8-12.

Federal Republic of Nigeria. (1999). Child Rights Act. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Retrieved from http: //www.nigeria-law. Org/Constitution Of The Federal Republic Of Nigeria.htm

Annabel S. Erulkar Mairo Bello. The experience of Married Adolescent Girls in northern Nigeria. Population council Inc. Abuja. www .ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/../ForcedMarria ge/NGO/PopulationCouncil24.pdf

National Population Commission [Nigeria] and ICF International. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Rockville, Maryland, USA: National Population Commission and ICF International.2014

Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008. Rockville, Maryland, USA: National Population Commission

Agunwa C. C, Aniebue U.U, Aniebue P.N. Sexual Behaviour and Contraceptive Use Among Female Students in A Rural Community in South -South Nigeria. Journal of Experimental Research, December 2014;2:2.

Oluwole Adeyemi Babatunde, Demilade Olusola Ibirongbe, Owen Omede, Olubukola Oluwakemi Babatunde, Kabir Adekunle Durowade, Adekunle Ganiyu Salaudeen, Tanimola Makanjuola Akande. Knowledge and use of emergency contraception among students of public secondary schools in Ilorin, Nigeria. Pan African Medical Journal. 2016; 23:74.

Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013: National Population Commission.2013.

Chinsembu KC. Sexually transmitted infections in Adolescents. The Open Infectious Diseases Journal 2009; 107 -117.

National Agency for the control of AIDS. National HIV strategy for Adolescents and young people 2016 2020. Naca.gov.ng/sites /default/files/National HIV Strategy for Adolescent and young people.pdf [cited 2 October,2016]

Akinrinola Bankole, Isaac F. Adewole, Rubina Hussain, Olutosin Awolude, Susheela Singh, Joshua O. Akinyemi. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. December 2015; 41 (4): 170 - 181.

Chinomnso C Nnebue, Uzoh C Chimah, Chukwuma B Duru, Amobi L Ilika, Taiwo O Lawoyin. Determinants of Age at Sexual Initiation among Nigerian Adolescents: A Study of Secondary Schools Students in a Military Barracks in Nigeria. American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine, 2016, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1-7.

Morenike O Folayan, Morolake Odetoyinbo, Brandon Brown, Abigail Harrison. Differences in sexual behaviour and sexual practices of adolescents in Nigeria based on sex and self- reported HIV status. Reproductive Health, 2014;11:83. Http://www.reproductive-health- journal.com/content/11/1/83.

34.

LC Ikeako, R Onoh, HU Ezegwui, PO Ezeonu.Pattern and outcome of induced abortion in Abakaliki, Southeast of Nigeria. Annals of Medical and Health Science Research ,2014(4):442 -446.

F.F. Akanle. Sexual Coercion of Adolescent Girls in Yoruba Land of Nigeria. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences ,2011;3(2): 132-138.

Ademola J Ajuwon, Adeniyi Olaleye, Banji Faromoju, Oladapo Ladipo. Sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in three states in North Eastern Nigeria. BMC Public Health. 2006; 6: 310.

UN (United Nations). 1995. “Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health.” In Population and Development: Programme of Action Adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994. New York: UN, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli, Catherine Lane, Sylvia Wong. What Does Not Work in Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Review of Evidence on Interventions Commonly Accepted as Best Practices. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2015; 3(3):333-340.

Mmari K, Marshall B, Hsu T, Shon JW, Eguavoen A. A mixed methods study to examine the influence of the neighborhood social context on adolescent health service utilization. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016; 24;16(1):433.

Mmari K, Lantos H, Blum RW, Brahmbhatt H, Sangowawa A, Yu C, Delany-Moretlwe S. A global study on the influence of neighborhood contextual factors on adolescent health. J Adolesc Health. 2014;55(6 Suppl): S13-20.

Hughes J, McCauley AP. Improving the Fit: Adolescents' Needs and Future Programs for Sexual and Reproductive Health in Developing

Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health in Nigeria

Countries. Stud Fam Plann. 1998;29(2):233-45.

Denno DM, Hoopes AJ, Chandra-Mouli V. Effective strategies to provide adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and community support. J Adolesc

Health. 2015; 56(1 Suppl): S22-41.

Manlove J, Fish H, Moore KA. Programs to

improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the US: a review of the evidence. Adolesc Health Med Ther. 2015; 6:47-79

International Planned Parenthood Federation. 2010. Framework for Comprehensive Sex- uality Education. London: International Plann ed Parenthood Federation.

Shortridge JL. Nigerian guidelines for sexuality education introduced at ceremony in Lagos. SIECUS Rep. 1997;25(2):4-7.

Cruz F. Como abordar la sexualidad con Adolescentes, presented at International Congress Promoting Sexual and Reproductive Health: 11/12/13 February. Cuenca, Ecuador. 2014.

Sumano E. La familia y su rol en la prevención del embarazo, presented at International Congress Promoting Sexual and Reproductive Health: 11/12/13 February. Cuenca, Ecuador: 2014.

Gilliam M, Chor J, Hill B. Digital media and sexually transmitted infections. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2014;26(5):381-5.

Guse K, Levine D, Martins S, Lira A, Gaarde J, Westmorland W, Gilliam M. Interventions using new digital media to improve adolescent sexual health: a systematic review. J Adolesc Health. 2012 Dec;51(6):535-43.

Gilliam M, Orzalli S, Heathcock S, Sutherland E, Jagoda P, Menendez A, Ojengbede O. From intervention to invitation: reshaping adolescent sexual health through storytelling and games. Afr J Reprod Health. 2012;16(2):189-96.

Downloads

Published

2017-06-01

How to Cite

1.
Iribhogbe OI, Ezeanochie M. Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health in Nigeria: An Appraisal of the Situation. JRSH [Internet]. 2017 Jun. 1 [cited 2021 Sep. 25];1(1):22-3. Available from: https://www.jrsh.org.ng/index.php/home/article/view/8